ARSLANTEPE II - PERIOD VII. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CEREMONIAL/POLITICAL CENTRE IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE FOURTH MILLENNIUM BCE (LATE CHALCOLITHIC 3-4)

di Francesca Balossi Rasttrelli

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    Missione Archeologica Italiana nell’Anatolia Orientale 
    Sapienza Università di Roma - Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Antichità

    ARSLANTEPE vol. II
    PERIOD VII -  THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CEREMONIAL/POLITICAL CENTRE IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE FOURTH MILLENNIUM BCE (LATE CHALCOLITHIC 3-4)
    Francesca Balossi Restelli

    Volume rilegato in tela verde con impressioni in argento e sovraccoperta, in 4°, 713 pp., ill.ni b/n e coll. 3 tavv. ripiegate f.t.


    TABLE O F CONTENTS

    PREFACE/PREFAZIONE (M. FRANGIPANE) Pag. 11
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS » 15
    INTRODUCTION » 17
    CHAPTER I - PERIOD VII AT ARSLANTEPE » 19
    I.1 General Sequence and main characters of the settlement in relation with the overall
    occupation at Arslantepe » 19
    I.1.1 he Dimensions of the Period VII mound » 24
    I.2 Excavation results: stratigraphy and architecture » 24
    I.2.1 he North-Eastern Sector: Area C3 (E1-E15) » 24
    I.2.2 he South-Western Sector: Areas D6-E6-C7-D7 » 38
    I.2.2.1 SW, VII 1a-b » 28
    I. 2.2.2 SW VII, 2a » 85
    I 2.2.3 SW VII, 2b » 89
    I 2.2.4 SW VII, 3a » 93
    I 2.2.5 SW VII, 3b » 106
    I 2.2.6 SW Period VII selected midden pits » 108
    I.2.3 he Southern Sector: Area B-C 9 » 110
    I.2.4 he North-Western Sector: Area D5 » 110
    I.2.4.1 D5 1 » 111
    I.2.4.2 D5 2 » 111
    I.2.4.3 D5 3 » 116
    I.2.4.4 D5 4 » 117
    I.2.4.5 D5 5 » 122
    I.3 The built space and its use. Open and Closed spaces, private and shared areas, and fixed
    installations » 125
    I.3.1 Ovens » 129
    I.3.2 Hearths and andirons » 133
    I.3.3 Other built installations » 136
    I.4 Wall Paintings » 136
    CHAPTER II - ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY OF PERIOD VII » 142
    II.1 Arslantepe VII Radiocarbon Dates » 142
    II.2 Late Chalcolithic 3-4 absolute chronology of Upper Mesopotamian contemporary sites » 144
    CHAPTER III – ARCHITECTURAL ATTRIBUTES OF PUBLIC AND DOMESTIC
    BUILDINGS IN PERIOD VII (C. ALVARO AND G. LIBEROTTI) » 148
    III.1 Temple C. Architectural analysis (C. Alvaro) » 148
    III.1.1 General Description » 150
    III.1.2 he Platform » 155
    6 F. Balossi Restelli
    III.1.3 he Quarry and the Construction Site » 165
    III.1.4 he shaping of the building » 169
    III.2 Domestic architecture in Late Chalcolithic Arslantepe (G. Liberotti) » 171
    III.2.1 Wall thickness, stone foundation and brickwork » 173
    III.2.2 Size of rooms and buildings » 175
    III.2.3 Access patterns and orientation » 177
    III.2.4 he building materials » 183
    III.2.5 Conclusion and discussion » 187
    CHAPTER IV – ASSEMBLAGE OF CRETULAE FROM THE END OF PERIOD VII:
    ADMINISTERED REDISTRIBUTION IN CEREMONIAL CONTEXTS. PRELIMINARY
    REMARKS (M. FRANGIPANE WITH CONTRIBUTION BY S. CEREDA) » 190
    IV.1 The contexts (M. Frangipane) » 190
    IV.1.1 he assemblage of cretulae from Temple C » 192
    IV.1.2 he assemblage of cretulae from Temple D » 196
    IV.1.3 he assemblage of cretulae from A850 » 203
    IV.1.4 Groups of cretulae in two pits » 205
    IV.2 The function of cretulae: Preliminary remarks on the sealed objects » 205
    IV.3 Some general remarks on period VII glyptics » 211
    IV.4 A few concluding remarks » 214
    Appendix: Micromorphological analyses from the floor of the main room in Temple D:
    reconstruction of activities and rebuilding phases (S. Cereda) » 216
    CHAPTER V - LATE CHALCOLITHIC BURIALS AND FUNERARY RITUALS (F. BALOSSI
    RESTELLI AND Y.S. ERDAL) » 222
    V.1 The context of the burials (F. Balossi Restelli) » 222
    V.2 The funerary and ritual area in level SW 1b » 225
    V.3 Burial types and depositions » 236
    V. 4 Burial goods » 237
    V.5 Bioarchaeological analysis of human bones in period VII (Y.S. Erdal) » 241
    V.6 Demographic compositions of human remains » 248
    V.7 Bone pathologies on the human remains » 251
    V.8 Conclusions (F. Balossi Restelli and Y.S. Erdal) » 255
    CHAPTER VI - LATE CHALCOLITHIC ANIMAL EXPLOITATION AT ARSLANTEPE
    (L. BARTOSIEWICZ) » 260
    VI.1 Introduction » 260
    VI.2 Material and methods » 261
    VI.2.1 Sub-divisions of the material » 262
    VI.2.2 Taxonomic diversity and assemblage size » 265
    VI.2.3 Methodological considerations » 265
    VI.3 Taphonomic aspects » 266
    VI.3.1 Deposition » 266
    VI.3.2 Fragmentation » 266
    VI.4 Taxonomic evaluation » 269
    Table of contents 7
    VI.4.1 Livestock and large game » 269
    VI.4.2 Synthetic evaluation of economically important taxa » 271
    VI.4.3 Dog » 272
    VI.4.4 Herbivorous game » 273
    VI.4.5 Horses » 275
    VI.4.6 Carnivorous game » 277
    VI.4.7 Insectivores » 281
    VI.4.8 Birds » 283
    VI.4.9 Poikilotherm animals » 283
    VI.4.10 Ageing domestic animals » 285
    VI.4.11 Anatomical evaluation » 288
    VI.5 Discussion » 290
    VI.5.1 Environmental considerations » 290
    VI.5.2 Socio-economic aspects » 291
    VI.5.3 Nature or nurture? » 292
    VI.6. Conclusions » 293
    Appendix » 295
    CHAPTER VII - PLANT REMAINS FROM ARSLANTEPE LATE CHALCOLITHIC 3-4
    (L. SADORI, A. MASI, C. VIGNOLA, F. BALOSSI RESTELLI) » 304
    VII.1 Introduction » 304
    VII.2 Environment around Arslantepe » 305
    VII.3 Materials and methods » 306
    VII.4 Results » 307
    VII.4.1 Carpological remains » 307
    VII.4.2 Charcoal remains » 307
    VII.4.3 D13C and D15N values » 309
    VII.5 Discussion and conclusion » 309
    CHAPTER VIII – LATE CHALCOLITHIC 3-4 POTTERY- THE WARES » 318
    VIII.1 Sampling, recording, study choices » 318
    VIII.2 General features of the Late Chalcolithic 3-4 pottery and ware classification » 319
    VIII.3 Hand made pottery - Domestic production » 323
    VIII.3.1 CC (Ceramica scura fatta a mano, or Ceramica Comune) » 325
    VIII.3.2 IC (Impasto Chiara) » 328
    VII.3.3 BBW – MBW – RBBW (Black Burnished, Monochrome Burnished, Red-Black
    Burnished Ware) » 328
    VIII.4 Specialised pottery manufacture - Wheel fashioned and wheel made Pottery » 329
    VIII.4.1 TGC (Tornita Grezza Chaf) » 335
    VIII.4.2 TLC (Tornita Lisciata Chaf) » 335
    VIII.4.3 RIB (Rossa Ingubbiata Brunita) » 335
    VIII.4.4 CT (Cucina Tornita) » 337
    VIII.4.5 FT (Fine Tornita) » 337
    VIII.5 Chronological distribution of ware classes » 338
    8 F. Balossi Restelli
    CHAPTER IX - ARCHAEOMETRIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE INVESTIGATION OF
    POTTERY CRAFTSWORK AND EARTHEN CONSTRUCTION (P. FRAGNOLI AND G. LIBEROTTI) » 344
    IX.1 The Introduction of the pottery wheel in Arslantepe Period VII: Integrated
    observations on a micro-, meso- and macroscale level (P. Fragnoli) » 344
    IX.1.1 Micro-patterns under the polarizing microscope: preliminary observations on forming
    procedures » 344
    IX.1.2 Macroscopic classiication of mass-produced bowls (TGC) into manufacturing types » 349
    IX.2 (Re)Defining ceramic wares and spheres of production at Arslantepe period VII. The
    contribution of petrographic and geochemical analyses (P. Fragnoli) » 356
    IX.2.1 Minero-petrographic analysis » 357
    IX.2.2 XRF-WDS geochemical analysis » 360
    IX.2.3 Discussion of the results in terms of operational sequence and craft organization » 361
    IX.2.4 Concluding remarks » 365
    IX. 3 Cross-craft strategies in raw material procurement: ceramics, mud bricks and other
    clay-based artefacts (P. Fragnoli and G. Liberotti) » 366
    IX.3.1 Introduction » 366
    IX.3.2 Preliminary data » 367
    IX.3.3 Sample selection and analytical procedures » 369
    IX.3.4 Geochemical results » 370
    IX.3.4.1 Spider diagrams and bivariate plots on major and minor elements » 370
    IX.3.4.2 Statistical elaboration: principal component analysis » 374
    IX.3.5 Discussion » 376
    CHAPTER X - LATE CHALCOLITHIC 3-4 POTTERY. THE SHAPES » 382
    X.1 Methods and aims of the morphological analysis of pottery » 382
    X.2 Criteria of classification » 384
    X.2.1 Functional Groups » 385
    X.3 Typological description and frequencies » 397
    X.3.1 A - Globular Jars » 397
    X.3.2 B - Large Globular Jars » 405
    X.3.2 C - Small Jars with narrow neck » 410
    X.3.4 D and E – Medium and Large sized narrow necked jars » 413
    X.3.5 Narrow necked large and medium jars, some observations » 422
    X.3.6 F - Pithoi » 425
    X.3.9 G - Bowls and Basins » 428
    X.3.10 Some observation on the Mass Produced Bowls » 445
    X.3.11 H - Beakers » 448
    X.3.12 I - Stemmed bowls » 455
    X.3.13 L - Lids » 457
    X. 3.14 Funnels » 458
    X.3.15 Typology: a summary and chronological evaluation of types » 458
    X.4 The typology of the FT – Fine and wheel turned ware (Fine tornita) » 462
    X.5 RBBW, MBW and BBW – Red Black Burnished Ware and its relations with the BBW
    and MBW » 465
    X.6 Unique vessels » 470
    X.7 Potter’s Marks » 473
    X.8 Specialisation and Standardisation of ceramic production » 484
    X.9 Transformation and changes in later VI A period pottery » 486
    Table of contents 9
    X.10 Interregional framework and relations of Arslantepe VII on the basis of the ceramics » 492
    X.11 Typology Catalogue » 499
    CHAPTER XI - OBSERVATIONS ON THE USE OF THE POTTERY » 516
    XI.1 Wide mouthed Globular Jars (A and B) » 517
    XI.2 Narrow necked jars (C, D, E) » 521
    XI.3 Pithoi » 522
    XI.4 Bowls, Basins and Stemmed bowls » 523
    XI.5 Beakers » 524
    XI.6 Morphology and Function at Arslantepe VII » 525
    CHAPTER XII - IN SITU DISTRIBUTION OF PORTABLE ARTEFACTS AND THE USE OF
    SPACE » 528
    XII.1 Position makes the difference » 528
    XII.2 In situ artefacts in the NE Sector » 531
    XII.3 In Situ Artefacts in Area D5 » 543
    XII.3.1 D5 1 - A923 » 543
    XII.3.2 Phase D5 2 » 547
    XII.3.3 Phase D5 3 » 551
    XII.3.4 Phases D5 4 and 5 » 551
    XII.4 In Situ Artefacts in Area SW » 552
    XII.4.1 Phase of Abandonment, last use of area » 552
    XII.4.1.1 K680 » 552
    XII.4.1.2 K1215 » 552
    XII.4.1.3 K1914 » 555
    XII.4.2 Phase SW 1 » 559
    XII.4.2.1 Building XXIX - Temple C » 559
    XII.4.2.2 Behind Temple C » 581
    XII.4.2.3 Temple D » 590
    XII.4.2.4 Building XLVIII - the “Long Rooms” » 591
    XII.4.2.5 he open area and round houses north of Building XLVIII » 609
    XII.4.3 Phase SW 2 » 612
    XII.4.4 Phase SW 3 » 621
    XII.4.4.1 Building XXV » 625
    XII.4.4.2 he Buildings to the south » 637
    XII.5 Analysis of activities and daily practices on the basis of artefact distribution in
    different contexts » 638
    XII.5.1 Food Manipulation » 639
    XII.5.2 Food Consumption » 642
    XII.5.3 Food Serving and Storage » 646
    XII.6 Artefact distribution in elite and non-elite domestic areas. A comparison » 647
    XII.7 Artefact distribution in External Areas » 649
    XII.8 Artefact distribution in Public and Ceremonial areas » 649
    10 F. Balossi Restelli
    CHAPTER XIII - COMPLEXITY OF SOCIETY IN ARSLANTEPE VII. THE LATE
    CHALCOLITHIC OF THE MALATYA PLAIN AND ITS RELATIONS WITH THE
    DEVELOPMENTS OF 4TH MILLENNIUM MESOPOTAMIA » 652
    XIII.I Continuity and change in Arslantepe VII » 652
    XIII.2 The steps to complexity » 655
    XIII.3 Eastern Anatolia within the context of Greater Mesopotamia » 658
    XIII.4 Open issues » 661
    TURKISH SUMMARY » 662
    BIBLIOGRAPHY » 682



    ARSLANTEPE. Scavi e Ricerche ad Arslantepe-Malatya - Excavations and Researches at Arslantepe-Malatya
    Marcella Frangipane editor

    Volume pubblicato con finanziamenti del Ministero Università e Ricerca, e del Ministero degli Affari Esteri e Cooperazione Internazionale. Le attività di ricerca in preparazione del presente volume sono state in parte supportate dalla Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung.
    This volume has been published with the financial support of the Italian Ministry of University and Research and of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. Research in preparation of this volume has been partly supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung.
    © Copyright by Missione Archeologica Italiana nell’Anatolia Orientale, Università Sapienza di Roma


    Arslantepe Series, published and planned volumes:
    Vol. I: Arslantepe-Malatya. The University of Rome archaeological project and the millenarian history of the site.
    Vol. II: Arslantepe. Period VII. The Development of a ceremonial/political centre in the first half of the fourth millennium BC (Late Chalcolithic 3-4), Francesca Balossi Restelli.
    Vol. III: Arslantepe. Period VII. Crafts and Specialisation in the first half of the fourth millennium BC (Late Chalcolithic 3-4).
    Vol. IV: Arslantepe. Period VII. The origin of centralised administration in a public ceremonial context.
    Vol. V: Arslantepe, Cretulae - An early centralised administrative system before writing, M. Frangipane (ed.) (published 2007).
    Vol. VI: Arslantepe, Period VI A - A highly centralised palatial society at the end of the fourth millennium BC (LC 5) (in preparation).
    Vol. VII: Arslantepe, Period VI A – The Ceramic Assemblage of Arslantepe VI A and its Significance in Food Related Practices (in preparation).
    Vol. VIII: Die Siedlung der Mittelbronzezeit von Arslantepe. Eine Zentralsiedlung von Beginn des zweiten Jahrtausends v.Chr. in der Ebene von Malatya (Türkei), G.M. Di Nocera (published 1998).
    Vol. IX: Arslantepe. Late Bronze Age. Hittite Influence and Local Traditions in an Eastern Anatolian Community, F. Manuelli (published in 2013).
    Vol. X: Arslantepe. Archaeometry 1. Compositional and technological characterization of pottery and clay-based artefacts (in preparation).

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